Volume 73

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South Africa - Australia exchange 2023 – Presentation summary

Author: Stephanie Hastie

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 1-7

Earlier this year I was fortunate to be given the opportunity by the IPPS do the 3-week exchange in South Africa and give a talk at the 2023 Conference. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction to some of the Australian native plants that are common in the different regions of Adelaide, South Australia, and beyond.

Keywords: industry experience, Australia, IPPS exchange

Horticultural lighting in nurseries from the ground up

Author: Athon Human

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 10-14

This paper describes how supplemental lighting can extend the growing season increase yields and promote healthy plant growth. It includes descriptions of light’s properties and how to measure those properties.

Keywords: plant growth, PAR, PPFD, light quality, light spectrum

Effect of light quality on in vitro growth and flowering in Perilla frutescens

Author: Masamichi Torii, Arisa Noguchi, Hiroko Nakatsuka and Wakanori Amaki

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 15-19

This study investigated the effects of light quality on in vitro growth and flowering in Perilla frutescens (Crispa type). In this experiment, three cultivars, 'Hoko Ao-shiso', 'Hoko Aka-shiso' and 'Hoko Uraaka-shiso' were used, and each seedling of them was raised in a test tube dispensed the medium (1/2 MS medium, 30g/L sucrose, 8g/L agar, pH 5.8) from the seed. Then they were cultured under different light quality conditions (Mixed White (W): Red + Green + Blue, Blue (B): λ = 470 nm, Green (G): λ = 525 nm, Red (R): λ = 660 nm). Seeds were sterilized with 70 % ethanol for 5 minutes followed by 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 5 minutes. Four light treatments (W, B, G, R, PPFD = 100μmol m-2s-1, 16 hr-Light/8 hr-Dark) started after appearing two unfolded true-leaves under the cool-white fluorescent lamps (PPFD = 130μmol m-2s-1, 16 hr-Light/8 hr-Dark). After the 3 months of culture, measured the growth and flowering responses. 'Hoko Ao-shiso' were flowered only under the G light treatment. 'Hoko Aka-shiso' and 'Hoko Uraaka-shiso' were flowered under the W, G and R light treatments respectively. Flowering was not occurred under the B light treatment. This is the first report, that Perilla frutescens in vitro flowering depending on light quality under non-inductive photoperiod (long day conditions). Hence, it is possible to analyze the flowering reaction of perilla by light quality, excluding stress-induced flowering by in vitro experimental system.

Keywords: tissue culture, plant evaluation, medicinal plant

Effects of blue light and cultivar in the internode elongation in sweet basil

Author: Arisa Noguchi and Hiroko Nakatsuka

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 20-25

Two sweet basil F1 cultivars, 'Campione', a tall Genovese type, and 'TSGI-156', a short Italian large-leaf type, were used to investigate the effect of light quality on the internode elongation using a mixed white LED light (blue: 470 nm, green: 530 nm, red: 630 nm, 1:1:1 mix ratio) and a monochromatic blue LED light (peak wavelength: 470 nm). Plant height and internodal length above the second node were higher and longer under the blue LED for both cultivars. The effect on internode elongation was greater for 'TSGI-156' than for 'Campione'. Cortex cells were larger under the blue LED, and in 'TSGI-156', the long axis length of cells under the blue LED was about 60% longer than that of the white LED. Blue light has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on plant stem elongation, but in sweet basil, it was found to have a promotive effect.

Keywords:  LED, Ocimum, plant height, light quality

In vitro flowering response in Iberis umbellata

Author: Syunya Shimazaki, Hiroko Nakatsuka, Arisa Noguchi and Wakanori Amaki

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 26-31

Iberis species are perennial or annual herbs of the genus Iberis in the Brassicaceae family, and is native to the Mediterranean coast, North Africa, and southwestern Asia. In vitro flowering is considered a convenient system to study the entire mechanism of reproductive processes. There have been no reports of in vitro flowering in Iberis, although there have been several reports on tissue culture for other species, I. amara and I. semperflorens. I. umbellata used in this research has never been used in in vitro research. Therefore, we investigated the effects of sucrose concentration and explant collected position on the in vitro flowering response. As a result, the addition of sucrose to the medium was essential for flowering, and judging from the flowering reaction, 30 g/L seemed to be optimal concentration. In addition, as a result of examining the explants from different positions, it became clear that the explants containing the apical bud were most likely to flowering.

Keywords: tissue culture, micropropagation, bedding plant

A medicinal plant, Eucommia ulmoides: Possibility of in vitro propagation under several tissue culture conditions

Author: Manami Inoue, Hiroko Nakatsuka, Arisa Noguchi, Wakanori Amaki and Chieko Yasuma

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 32-35

Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (eucommia) is a deciduous and dioecious woody plant that is native to China. In China, the bark has been used as a Chinese herbal medicine since ancient times, and its medicinal properties include lowering blood pressure, analgesia, and diuresis. Recently, it has been discovered that the leaves have similar effects. There have been several reports of propagation by tissue culture in the past using in vitro seedlings, but it cannot be said to be established. In the future it will be necessary to conduct line selection and propagation of eucommia. For this purpose, the following experiments were conducted using axillary buds of adult trees. We added 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) in combination and investigated their effects. As a result, by combining 2 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l TIBA and increasing the culture temperature to 28°C, adventitious shoots could be induced.

Keywords: micropropagation, hardy rubbertree, cytokinin, auxin inhibition

A medicinal plant, Establishment of species-specific DNA markers to identify interspecific hybrids of Hibiscus

Author: Masaki Ochiai, Kensuke Nakagomi, and Hirokazu Fukui

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 36-42

Confirmation of hybridization is important for interspecific crosses. This study established species-specific DNA markers to select hybrids from interspecific crosses among 4 Hibiscus species: H. cannabinus L., H. acetosella Welw. ex Fic. ‘Black King’, H. coccineus Walt., and H. mutabilis L.. Start codon targeted (SCoT) primers were used to establish species-specific DNA markers. Species identification was performed based on the electrophoresis band patterns of PCR products using SCoT primers. The results show that some SCoT primers could be used as species-specific DNA markers among the 4 Hibiscus species: SCoT7 primer could distinguish H. cannabinus L. (blue flower type) or H. coccineus Walt. from the other species, a combination of SCoT2 and ScoT3 primers could distinguish H. cannabinus L. (white flower type) or H. mutabilis L. from the other species, and a combination of SCoT3 and SCoT7 primers could distinguish H. acetosella Welw. ex Fic. ‘Black King’ from the other species. Accordingly, these DNA markers were applied to detect the pollen parents of interspecific crosses, and the results were consistent with the results from morphological evaluation.

Keywords: DNA fingerprinting, plant breeding, PCR

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba ) floral differentiation period in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan

Author: Takaaki Maeda, Shota Miyahara, and Tatsuro Murata

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 43-45

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a North American fruit crop with potential in as a novel crop in Japan. This paper describes the flowering phenology of pawpaw under local conditions in Miyazaki Prefecture.

Keywords: fruit crop, yield, flowering

Propagation – Essential to Life on Earth: 51st Conference of the International Plant Propagators’ Society – Australia Region

Author: Ranjith Pathirana and Zoe Williams

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 46-66

The 51st Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society-Australia Region convened on 25 May 2023 at the Novotel Hotel, Geelong, Victoria, Australia with President Bruce Higgs presiding.

Keywords:  IPPS, program, tours, awards, scholarships

Identification of changes in total volatilome of tomato plant roots in response to phosphorous availability

Author: Olumuyiwa Akintola Elliott

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 74-83

The volatilome are bioactive volatile organic compounds. They respond to changes in growing conditions and can work as signalling molecules within or between plants.

This paper describes changes in volatile organic compounds in plants in response to changes in phosphorus availability.

Keywords: volatile compounds, plant interactions, mycorrhiza, organic compounds, strigolac-tone

Provenance propagation methodology of Perth bushland species from seed

Author: David Hancock

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 84-88

The Western Australian region near Perth is a unique bushland. There are numerous rare plant species in the area that deserve conservation. Seed viability is impacted by collection techniques. Development of germination strategies for these must be developed to complement conservation programs. This paper provides examples of this work over the past 20 years at Natural Area Nursery.

Keywords:  natural areas, native plants, germination, dormancy

Propagating for farms

Author: Puthiyaparambil Josekutty

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 89-95

Propagating for farms is to assist with improved crop production. Therefore, several factors ranging from the genetics to quality control have to be carefully considered while propagating for farms. As a veteran tissue culturist and from a decade of tissue culture production and management experiences as a commercial plant propagation Manger in Australia, I shall discuss some interesting experiences and lessons learned at the Yuruga Native Plants Nursery, Walkamin, Queensland (QLD); Fleming’s Nursery, Australia and Skybury Farms, Paddy’s Green, QLD for the benefit of the wider plant propagator community. I shall discuss some important aspects like the genetics, genetic improvement in vitro, fidelity, disease and pest control etc. in relation to commercial propagation of plants for farms with Banana, Avocado and Papaya as examples. Additionally, the usefulness of in vitro culture systems for rapid crop improvement, plant production, assisting with quarantine compliance etc. are discussed.

Keywords:  tissue culture, micropropagation, banana, avocado, papaya

The Importance of plants in the landscape

Author: Andrew Laidlaw

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 96-105

Gardens can connect a diversity of people to sense or place. This paper describes several design projects from the Royal Botanic Gardens in Victoria. They include a children’s garden, the Guilfoyle’s Volcano, the Fern Gully, the Arid garden, White oak area, the Sensory garden and other projects.

Keywords: Royal Botanic Gardens, landscape design, garden design

Plant retailing – From then to now

Author: Clive Larkman

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 106-107

Major developments occurred to alter the way and reason why plants were grown and sold. Fresh vegetables and herbs became more easily available through development in suburban farming including greenhouse expansion, breeding but most importantly the evolution of large food retailers. The ornamental value became as important as the food value of the variety. Gardening became a serious pastime and gardeners wanted ‘new’, ‘bigger’, ‘longer flowering’ plants that are tolerant of diseases, pests and other biotic stress factors. This paper describes changes in retail garden customers.

Keywords:  garden centers, life style centers, on-line purchases

Southern Africa Region student exchange

Author: Thandisizwe Siphenkosi Ndabeni

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 108-112

The 16th of May 2023 felt like a dream after a very long wait for my trip to attend the IPPS conference in Melbourne as an exchange student. I won the exchange program in March 2020, and I was supposed to leave in May 2020 but due to covid19 I was unable to go. Finally, early this year I was able to go. It was an amazing trip, full of joy and excitement as it was my 1st time leaving the country. I was hoping to gain a lot from this trip, and I sure did. I spent a week in Perth, a week in Melbourne and a week in Adelaide. I did a lot of nursery visits, botanic gardens and other fun activities in each city and the experience I had was amazing. The most remarkable thing during my visit is that I got to witness 1st hand the purpose of IPPS which is to seek and share information. During my stay in Australia, I met a lot of people that were very open to new ideas and were willing to share information with me.

Keywords:  Australia exchange, nursery, cultural, Western Australia

Challenges and achievements in mine revegetation in New Caledonia

Author: Danielle SaintPierre

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 113-119

New Caledonia, a French territory in the South Pacific, harbors exceptional biodiversity resulting from its geological history and isolation. The presence of ultramafic rocks gave rise to unique soils with high metal toxicity and limited organic matter. While nickel ore mining has enabled economic development, it has also led to significant vegetation and soil degradation, disrupting ecosystems and seriously impacting biodiversity. Mine revegetation efforts aim to restore damaged areas and preserve biodiversity. The use of local and endemic pioneer species has given promising results, as they adapt well to the challenging conditions of the mining sites. These species require minimal maintenance, integrate well with the environment, reproduce effectively, and contribute to vegetation dynamics. Revegetation techniques, such as hydroseeding and planting, have been employed on mine sites. Hydroseeding, with endemic or native shrub mixtures, offers cost-effective solutions, while planting provides immediate vegetation presence. Companies like SIRAS Pacifique have pioneered rehabilitation projects, combining ecological restoration and civil engineering works. Additionally, steps have been taken to preserve ecosystems, through seed orchards, and to conserve rare and threatened species, through propagation trials. Despite progress, further research and collaboration between government, industry, and research institutions are needed to safeguard endangered species and enhance understanding. New Caledonia should therefore successfully balance economic development with the preservation of its remarkable natural heritage.

Keywords:soils:  hydroseeding, seedling establishment, native species

The role of the Western Australian Botanic Garden nursery – Collections, conservation and education

Author: Amanda Shade

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 120-131

Nurseries attached to Botanic Gardens are uniquely placed within the industry – as the primary producers for organisations that hold “documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display and education” (reference – BGCI website) they are often in the privileged position to become involved in a range of activities linked to these core functions of a Botanic Garden. Western Australia is home to over 13,000 highly diverse, unique and environmentally specialised taxa. At Kings Park in Perth, home of the Western Australian Botanic Garden, the nursery has developed over time to become a specialised producer of a large range of this world-renowned flora, propagating plants that are variously utilised for collections, ornamental display, important conservation and restoration outcomes and educational and training purposes. All propagation activities, trials, experimentation and production are intertwined and underpinned by these driving influences, and over the past almost 60 years the Kings Park nursery team have refined their propagation techniques to ensure repeatability and reliability in allowing the showcasing and conservation of a diverse range of species, many of which have not been previously introduced into cultivation or are not commercially available. This paper explores the themes of collections, conservation and education with a focus on the responsibilities of the Kings Park nursery in each of these areas.

Keywords:flora, horticulture, kings park, propagation, recreation, tourism, training, Western Australia

Modern-day plant hunting

Author: Alistair Watt

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 131-139

From 1985 to 2000 I made a number of plant-collecting trips to Chile, Fiji, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This paper lists the principal introductions into Australia and in a few cases, a number of species received from other collectors overseas. Several botanic gardens hold a good range of the original introductions, as well as a large number of newly re-propagated plants. This includes the Geelong Botanic Gardens at its Pacific Rim ‘Southern Hemisphere’ section. In addition, in a dedicated New Caledonian section adjacent to their New Zealand bed, the Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne displays an interesting range of species mainly collected by the author. The botanic gardens of Sydney, Adelaide and Hobart also hold some valuable collections propagated from the original plant introductions.

Keywords:  plant collecting, plant introduction, Chile, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand

Mass propagation in plugs

Author: Ian van Zanten

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 141-145

Bedding and perennial plant propagation includes programs for unrooted cuttings (URC), seed raised plugs, and tissue culture (TC) plants. The focus of this paper is our vegetative production program using cuttings.

Keywords: vegetative propagation, cuttings, unrooted cuttings, tissue culture

Plastic propagation additives and recycling

Author: Matthew Mills

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 146-152

While plant propagation plastics are commonly used in Australia, there are initiatives in place to manage their disposal in an environmentally responsible way. These initiatives include the PP5 stewardship, a recycling program participated in by many nurseries and major horticultural suppliers. Unpacking plastic use as an input to propagation and its recycling for contained reuse in Australia, is a complex and engaging story of an industry’s dedication to succeed.

Keywords:  environmental waste, containers, polystyrene, polypropylene

Propagation in the community

Author: Jane Edmanson

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 153-154

I was born in Mildura, in North-West Victoria, growing up with horticulturist parents who farmed oranges, grapefruit, avocados and lemons, all on the banks of the Murray River. It was a family affair, from the growing and harvesting the fruit, delivering to the markets, plus a venture showing tourists how a citrus farm operates. My profession started as a secondary teacher in rural Victoria, and after a few years on, an impulse got a job at the State Schools Nursery. Quickly my love of plants became an obsession, with propagation of Australian natives in tubes and perennial plants to the fore. I loved giving garden talks on all sorts of topics, and still give many to garden clubs and schools. I moved onto becoming a radio and television personality, and a voice for the gardening community. The long running ABCs Gardening Australia has been a joy for all its 34 years, and I continue to enjoy presenting it. I have had so much pleasure in the many different aspects that a love of spreading the word about gardening takes me. I co-owned a retail nursery in Melbourne, showing how to deal with common problems that arise in suburban gardens (how many lemon tree questions arise?). I have been involved in establishing a variety of organisations to bring all sorts of people to the joy of gardening, often involving propagation as a domestic activity. For instance, setting up Men of the Trees branch to replant a large number of trees, the Rail Trail Association, the Australian Garden History Association, the Ornamental Plants Collections and Horticultural Therapy Association. The Schools Gardens Awards is a wonderful garden-based program for all schools and students of all ages, and I have been part of it for its 40 years plus in existence. Gardening in the community is very much alive and well, and I would like to promote young people to venture into our wonderful horticultural world.

Keywords:  restoration, society, schools, education

Grafting Australian native species

Author: Tony Hughes

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 155-162

Eremophila is a diverse genus mostly from the drier regions of inland Australia. This has presented several difficulties for propagators in the southern states with colder and wetter climate. Constructing microclimates is one way to overcome the issues of cultivation, but more success can be achieved if the plant is grafted onto one of two different Myoporum species. Similarly, the genus Prostanthera also has several species originating in drier, more arid climates and cultivation of these species in colder and wetter climates can also be achieved with grafting onto a more suitable rootstock. The wider range of Prostanthera spp. are only just starting to become more widely known and the scope for cultivation of grafted plants is becoming larger as the less common species are being propagated. This paper introduces Eremophila and Prostanthera species as well as the rootstock genera of Myoporum and Westringia. The grafting techniques used, and best matches of rootstock and scion spp. that have been refined over the years, and maintaining grafted plants and their post-grafting best practices for handling are discussed.

Keywords:  Eremophila, Myoporum, Prostanthera, Westringia, propagation

A new plant variety rights law

Author: Chris Barnaby

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 163-168

Plant Variety Rights (PVR) are an intellectual property Right specifically developed for plant breeders, providing a tool for the commercialisation of cultivars and the opportunity to make a return on their investment in developing new plant varieties. The new law meets obligations under the Treaty of Waitangi, the 1991 UPOV Convention and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). The Waitangi Tribunal report for Wai262 has formed the basis of change in the management of applications for taonga species and the 1991 UPOV Convention has provided guidance and recommendations on what is included in the new law including the greater scope of Rights, the addition of Essential Derivation and limited Rights over harvested material. The new law provides a more comprehensive coverage of administrative elements including objection process, use of Hearings, rules of evidence, the Right to be heard and appeals. The examination and testing process in practical terms is largely unchanged with some new provisions regarding the payment of fees, the supply of photos and access to plant material for variety testing. Infringement provisions are clearly set out and cover what is authorisation of the breeder, what constitutes an infringement, when an action can be taken and types of relief.For the next twenty-five or more years there will be two parallel PVR laws in operation. All varieties granted or applied for under the PVR Act 1987 will continue unchanged because there are no retrospective provisions in the PVR Act 2022. The benefits of the new law will only apply to applications and grants under the PVR Act 2022.

Keywords:  Plant Variety Rights Act, Treaty of Waitangi, principles of The Treaty, UPOV Convention, in-digenous plant species, scope of protection, essential derivation, harvested material, examina-tion and testing, costs of protection, infringements, parallel laws

Mealybugs demonstrate feeding preference differences between different grapevine varieties

Author: Ross Bicknell, Nigel Joyce, Manoharie Sandanayaka, Vicky Davis, Catherine Sansom, John van Klink, Michelle Thompson, Philippa Barrell, Lisa Watkins and Adam Friend

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 172-182

Rootstocks are almost universally used for grapevine because they provide protection against the root pest phylloxera. We are interested in other roles that rootstocks might provide, in particular the possibility of deterring mealybug feeding. Mealybugs feed by drawing sap from the plant’s phloem tissue. While phloem feeding can weaken the plant, it is of particular concern because it efficiently enables the transmission of viruses. Mealybug feeding/survival was initially tested on eight grape varieties. Five varieties were then selected with varying responses and these were used to test mealybug feeding under a range of environmental and experimental conditions. Although the absolute numbers of insects surviving varied between treatments the ranking of the varieties remained constant. This information is now informing the development of a bioassay for mealybug feeding on grape. It is also being used to study the possible chemical basis of feeding deterrence in this material.

Keywords:  phylloxera, transmitted viruses, insect feeding assays, grape rootstocks

Fifty Years of New Zealand Rose Society Trials

Author: Hayden Foulds

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 183-187

The first Southern Hemisphere rose cultivar evaluations originated in New Zealand beginning in 1969. They have continued for over 50 years. This paper discusses rose evaluations in New Zealand including breeding trends and future prospects.

Keywords:  Rosa, rose trials, New Zealand, plant evaluation

Plant breeding at Auckland Botanic Gardens and beyond

Author: Jack Hobbs

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 188-194

Plant breeding programmes at Auckland Botanic Gardens have produced ornamental plants that perform well under New Zealand conditions. Trials are conducted to evaluate plants for flowering, foliage and habit, and general plant health. Examples of breeding efforts related to selected plants will be described.

Keywords:  Veronica, Leptospermum, Dahlia, Canna, Hemerocallis, Camellia, septoria leaf spot, daylily rust, camellia flower blight

Rhododendron potting mix – our trials and results using coir

Author: Ian Swan

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 195-201

Potting mixes are integral to superior plant production systems. Creating a suitable mix can be challenging given the changing available substrates. A new mix using coir was developed for Rhododendron production.

Keywords:  capillary watering, rhododendron dieback, heavy and light potting mix

Old dogs teaching young chicks old tricks with a twist

Author: Terry Hatch

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 202-203

Several old propagation methods have been successful on a small number of native species; two-metre-long trimmed branches of Metrosideros have rooted, hammer cuttings are recommended for some species where there is limited material, and horseshoe cuttings of king fern produce fernlets within a few months.

Keywords:  Vitex, Metrosideros, hammer cuttings, horseshoe cuttings, king fern

Fifty years of change in a family run production nursery and a brief overview of the industry as we have seen it

Author: Lindsey Hatch

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 204-206

Joy Plants is a well-known New Zealand nursery started by Terry and Pamela Hatch in the 1960’s. A wide range of plants has been produced by Joy Plants throughout the years, with plant trends leading to diversification in main production lines. Landscaping and even beehive supply to kiwifruit orchards has shown how this successful family nursery has adapted to change over 50years.

Keywords:  Joy Plants, founding member, Bevlynn bulbs

Technical sessions of the International Plant Propagator’s Society – Southern Region of North America (SNRA) Annual Meeting

Author: Judson LeCompte

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 207-209

The 47th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society-Southern Region of North America (SRNA) convened at 8:00 am on 30 October 2023 at the DoubleTree Hotel, Raleigh-Durham Airport Research Triangle Park, Durham, North Carolina with President Judson LeCompte presiding.

Keywords: IPPS-SR, SRNA, awards, scholarships

Myrica rubra, a new ornamental with edible fruit and its propagation challenges

Author: Zachary Hutzell and Donglin Zhang

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 210-216

The successful introduction and adoption of new taxa in the ornamental market depends on developing adequate propagation protocols. If a new plant cannot be reliably and quickly propagated, nursery producers may not be able to justify large scale production of the taxon while wasting resources, labor, and time. Myrica rubra is a new species and its selected clones are worthy of introduction for their ornamental value and edible fruits. However, these new clones are difficult to clonally regenerate with stem cuttings. This study evaluated hormone applications and timing of cuttings to optimize the protocols for stem cutting propagation for Myrica rubra. Some success was achieved in rooting semi-hardwood stem cuttings taken between May 25 and September 5, with an application of 8,000 ppm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) talc powder. Further studies should focus on the best-found protocol for rooting stem cuttings of Myrica rubra for large-scale clonal propagation for nursery production.

Keywords:  adventitious rooting, edible ornamental, cutting propagation, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), Yangmei, yumberry.

Evaluation of sawdust derived from three different softwood tree species as substrate amendments

Author: Amanda Mizell, Jeb S. Fields, and Maureen Theissen

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 217-224

Peat moss alternatives are needed as the use of soilless substrates has increased. Wood as a peat moss amendment has been used for decades. In this study, three different softwood tree species: Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga), Hemlock (Tsuga), and Southern Yellow Pine (Pinus) were blended with peat and perlite at 20- and 40% (by vol.) to create six unique soilless substrate blends. Plugs of Marigold (Tagetes patula) ‘Janie Yellow’, Zinnia ‘Preciosa Yellow’, and Helianthus ‘Busy Bee’ were grown in the sawdust substrates. Static physical properties, chemical properties, and plant health were evaluated. Overall, findings were similar to other studies that show sawdust having low bulk density, high air space and container capacity, and can grow crops comparable to a standard greenhouse growing media.

Keywords:  soilless media, wood fiber, peat moss, alternative potting media, greenhouse production

Landscape performance of native and non-native ornamentals grown under two different irrigation regimes in north and northcentral Florida

Author: Joanna J. Silva, Sandra B. Wilson, Gary W. Knox, Rachel E. Mallinger

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 225-234

Pollinator gardening has gained momentum in recent years with an increased consumer interest in selecting native over non-native plant species to reduce water dependence and maximize biodiversity value in both public greenspaces and domestic gardens. A two-year study was conducted to determine the main effects of plant provenance (native or non-native) and moisture availability (full or partial irrigation) on landscape performance and flowering of twenty ornamental species planted in two geographic locations (north or northcentral Florida). Represented genera of paired native and non-native species included Bidens, Conradina, Coreopsis, Gaillardia, Hibiscus, Ilex, Monarda, Salvia, Scutellaria , and Viburnum . A positive response of plant size was observed for native provenance and full irrigation treatments. Floral abundance of native species was also greater than non-native species at both planting locations. Across both irrigation regimes and locations, both native and non-native plants attracted a diverse population of pollinator groups. Notably there was a positive association where 2.3 times more native bees were collected from native species compared to non-native species.

Keywords:  pollinator plants, bee pollinators, drought tolerance

Cultivating sustainability: biodegradable containers in horticultural production

Author: Melanie Hill, Emily Stamm, and Paul C. Bartley

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 235-245

Plastic containers are the standard in the horticulture industry for the production of plants for retail and landscape use. Sustainability has become a popular topic because the pandemic affected the way people think about sustainability and their impact. The pandemic also created a boom in the plant industry because people were home and had more time to explore their current interests as well as new interests, such as indoor and outdoor gardening. Six containers made from materials other than petroleum-based plastic were used in this study to look at their performance in relation to plastic containers, as well as their degradation and marketability. Plant size, container gravimetric differences from trial initiation to harvest week, container wet and dry tensile strength from trial initiation to harvest week were evaluated; and a consumer opinion survey was conducted at each harvest week. The largest plants were grown in peat and BioPax containers. BioPax containers also had the highest tensile strength at all testing intervals - as wet and dry test pieces.

Keywords:  basil, biodegradable containers, commercial production

Characterization and efficacy of a novel poultry-derived fertilizer for container production

Author: Austin Lindquist, Paul Bartley and Rishi Prasad

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 246-257

The poultry industry is a major rural economic industry within the Southern US. Raw poultry litter, a waste product of the industry, is facing increasing regulation for its use as a broadcast fertilizer. Alternatively, poultry litter can be processed utilizing aerobic digestion to produce a new product with potentially fewer negative environmental and health consequences. A novel digested litter-based fertilizer produced by Cleaned and Green, LLC (C&G) was assessed for nutrient release characteristics and plant responses to gauge its efficacy for container production. Rapid water incubation tests demonstrated that the majority of C&G nutrients released within 10 min, similar to traditional synthetic fertilizers. In soil-based incubation tests, ammonium release occurred in two phases, at Day 1 and Day 35. Nitrate concentration remained low through Day 15 but increased dramatically through Day 55. Potassium was immediately available upon application. Phosphorus concentrations were not significantly higher than control soil, indicating this product may help alleviate some environmental concerns. Tomatoes grown with C&G and C&G blended fertilizers showed improved vitality at higher N rates. However, tomatoes growth with poultry litter at higher rates produced larger plants. Growth assays on tomatoes was recorded. Due to its rapid release, this novel fertilizer appears best fit for short-term floriculture crops.

Keywords:  poultry litter, fertilizer, nutrient release, plant assays

Effects of cytokinin type and concentration on shoot proliferation in a novel Tripidium hybrid

Author: Tanner Hamerling, Darren Touchell and Thomas Ranney

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 258-265

Tripidium , a genus within the sugarcane complex (Andropogoneae tribe of the Poaceae), is used as a landscape plant and more recently has been recognized for its bioenergy potential. Micropropagation protocols were investigated to expedite shoot proliferation. Four cytokinin types including 6-benzylamino purine (BAP), thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin and kinetin were investigated at concentrations of 0. 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 µM. In a second experiment the effect of BAP or TDZ, alone or a 1:1 ratio combination, at 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 µM on shoot regeneration was investigated. Media supplemented with either 5 µM TDZ or 20 µM BAP produced 6.05 and 5.75 shoots per explant, respectively. The combination of BAP and TDZ did not significantly improve multiplication rates. This research provides protocols for rapid multiplication and micropropagation of Triipidium

Keywords:  micropropagation, cytokinin, thidiazuron, zeatin, 6-benzyl aminopurine

Photosynthetic performance of Handroanthus chrysotrichus seedlings grown in substrate with Rhizobacteria

Author: Thiago Souza Campos, Vania Maria Pereira, Antonio Maricélio Borges de Souza, Wagner A Vendrame, Everlon Cid Rigobelo and Kathia Fernandes Lopes Pivetta

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 266-272

Rhizobacteria , regarded as renewable resources, enable a sustainable system for producing vigorous and rapidly growing seedlings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in the production of H. chrysotrichus seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized. The treatments consisted of microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Azospirillum brasilense ) plus the absence of microorganisms - control; four repetitions and ten plants per plot. The following were evaluated: leaf number, leaf area, as well as chlorophyll content; minimum and maximum fluorescence; and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II. The inoculation with B. amyloliquefaciens has been found to enhance leaf area. Moreover, B. amyloliquefaciens plays a role in maintaining the functionality of the photosystem reaction center. Consequently, it can be concluded that B. amyloliquefaciens stands out as the most effective inoculant for golden trumpet for promoting greater efficiency of the photosystem II.

Keywords:  Azospirillum brasilense, Bacillus spp., plant growth, microorganisms, nursery

Germination and seedling growth under different sowing depths for green and silver saw palmetto (Serenoa repens

Author: Vânia Maria Pereira, Patricia Ramalho de Barros, Thiago Campos de Souza, Héctor Pérez, Wagner Vendrame

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 273-282

Saw palmetto is a native palm of the Southeast United States, present in green and silver forms, of high ornamental value for native landscapes and of potential commercial importance because of its phytotherapeutic properties. This project evaluated the influence of sowing seed depths (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm) in the germination and seedling growth of silver and green forms of saw palmetto - based on nursery growers' assertions that greater depths would yield higher plants. Green saw palmetto achieved 50% maximum germination around 89 days after sowing at any sowing depth, while silver germination occurred within 149 days - and only differed between 1 and 8 cm sowing depth. The green forms had greater seedling height and leaf area one year after sowing – due to earlier germination. As sowing depths increased, seedling height and visual quality increased, but there was no difference in the number of seedling leaves. Root length decreased as sowing depth increased - but there was no effect on the root dry weight; the root biomass was similar at any depth. The green form provided taller plants in a shorter period due to faster germination. However, silver may be preferable due to glaucous coloration of leaves. One year after sowing, seedling height was greater at the deeper sowing depth (8 cm) - confirming nursery growers' observations; however, even with decreased root length - root biomass was unaffected.

Keywords:  palm production, seed depth, plant vigor

Here, there, and back again ….. again!

Author: Andrew King

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 283-288

Historically, individuals from the private sector of Horticulture/ Green Industry and those from the academic side have divergent backgrounds and experiences. Some academics have little or no commercial horticultural exposure. This paper highlights some of the challenges, opportunities and benefits of bridging the gap by employing people in academia with significant experience in private industry - “hybrid” professionals.

Keywords:  academia, commercial industry experience, green industry, art and science of horti-culture

General observations of the germination requirements of New Zealand native flora

Author: Philip Smith

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 289-297

This paper is of interest to nurseries that collect and propagate native seed. Totara Glen Nurseries is primary a native plant supplier to New Zealand territorial authorities and infrastructure projects. Some 99% of seed is collected, processed and stored by us – and 95% of our plants are grown from seed. Challenges in dormancy and seed propagation systems - appropriate for seedling production of our select, New Zealand native plants and environs are discussed.

Keywords:  native seed, seed propagation, dormancy

The art and science of plant propagation

Author: Regina Coronado

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 298-307

The goal of this paper is to motivate prop-agators to understand that plant propaga-tion integrates both science and art in pro-ducing high quality liners. The underlining goal is maximizing efficiency and yields in propagation for commercial production success.

Keywords:  rooting hormones, auxins, cuttings, tissue culture, seed, propagation media, propa-gules

Starting a nursery from scratch

Author: Doug Torn

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 308-324

Doug Torn, founder and owner of Buds & Blooms, outlines the process of starting a nursery - locating in another state - without the luxury of inheriting land or having a rich uncle to bankroll the operation. Literally: starting from scratch, but doing so after gaining invaluable, professional nursery expertise – having a well-researched, thought-out business plan of what niche nursery products to produce, select markets to service, designing efficient/cost-effective production systems, growing methodically to not outpace sales, minimizing debt – and managing cash flow. The nursery has grown to 60 acres, with 25 employees - producing over 325,000 containerized plants. The four keys to his success are: 1) building a team of outstanding employees – hardworking with creative solutions, 2) managing dollars and cents, 3) efficiency, efficiency, efficiency, and 4) the love and joy of producing exceptional, quality plants – with satisfied customers.

Keywords: nursery layout, financing, markets, crop selection, production efficiency, personnel, cashflow

Improving air-filled porosity in woody propagation at the Hammond Research Station

Author: Maureen Thiessen and Jeb S. Fields

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 325-337

Extreme heat during summer propagation of woody species often necessitates frequent mist applications to maintain proper leaf turgor. This frequent mist can result in excess moisture in propagation substrates, which tend to have low air space due to small container sizes and fine substrate particles. This study evaluated the use of substrate stratification, Growcoons, and wood fiber inclusion to increase air-filled porosity in propagation substrates and improve success and quality of rooted cuttings. Several woody species were selected to test each method and were rooted over the summer of 2023. Substrate stratification with 100% perlite did not yield significant benefit to rooting success or plug quality in most species, while Growcoons and wood fiber inclusion increased rooting success with little to no effect on root and plug quality.

Keywords: stratified substrate, rooting, Growcoon, woody, propagation, stem cuttings, wood fiber

IPPS European exchange 2022

Author: Erika Ramos

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 338-348

The International Plant Propagators Society-Southern Region (IPPS-SR) and IPPS-European Region support a joint Early-Career IPPS Exchange Program – reciprocally hosting and exposing new professionals to the Green Industry in their region – and attending their annual conference. Erika Ramos of the IPPS-SR was the 2022 professional awardee – and reports on her experience touring and learning about the European Nursery Industry.

Keywords: Early-Career IPPS Southern and European Regions’ Exchange Program

The adventures, challenges and rewards of propagating rare and unusual perennials

Author: Aaron Selby

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 349-363

Over the past twenty years, I have participated in the production of countless perennials at Juniper Level Botanic Gardens Juniper Level Botanic Garden and Plant Delights Nursery Plant Delights Nursery,. This is a 28-acre ex situ conservation and research institution that also includes over 10-acres of gardens. During my time at Plant Delights Nursery and Juniper Level Botanical Gardens, an estimated 60,000 new garden accessions have been introduced and annually the collection increases by an average of 2,000 plants.

Keywords:  gardens, nothospecies, propagation techniques, offsets, scooping

Cornus, Benthamidia, Dendrobenthamia, and Swida: Oh my – making taxonomy less taxing

Author: Qiu-Yun Jenny Xiang

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 364-375

Different opinions among taxonomists lead to differences in classification schemes and result in frequent name changes and confusion in communication. New evidence from phylogenetic studies using genetic/genomic data have also led to the need for reclassification of many groups, leading to new names being given to many previously familiar plants. Frequent name changes not only lead to misunderstandings in communications but also cause problems in data storage and information retrieval. We need new plant classification systems that are resilient to name changes resulting from the splitting of large genera or families, lumping of small genera, or due to personal opinions on plant characteristics instead of new names being frequently proposed, accepted, and then rejected. Examining the highly controversial taxonomy and classification history of dogwoods demonstrates evident limitations of the traditional Linnaean System that organizes taxa hierarchically from the kingdom to the species level and gives each species a unique two-word Latin name. The limitations present the need for a classification system that is rank-free and aims to make taxonomy and names more stable. PhyloCode is an alternative to the traditional Linnaean system that names taxa/clades without assigning ranks and can be used concurrently with the Linnaean system. The Fundamental ideas about PhyloCode will be introduced and a PhyloCode-based classification of dogwoods is presented.

Keywords: classification, Cornus, dogwood, PhyloCode, phylogeny, taxonomy

Managing water quality on-farm

Author: Sarah A. White

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 376-382

Water availability and quality contribute to crop health and impact the profitability of crop production. Water security is likely the next big challenge for ornamental producers worldwide. Enhancing on-farm water storage (e.g., reservoirs) capacity may be one of the savviest investments currently that can be made. Grower use of poorer-quality water will likely increase in the coming years. Managing water quality on-farm can be achieved by strategically integrating chemical or biologically-based treatment technologies within production areas or water-management systems.

Keywords:  Clean Water3, water storage, water availability, water-use strategy, remediation, recycling

J Berry Nursery marketing influence

Author: James Berry

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 383-389

J Berry Nursery stands as a testament to the power of innovation and dedication. Jim's love for plants and his commitment to delivering quality have been the guiding principles behind this horticultural endeavor. We are going to unveil the comprehensive marketing strategy that has propelled J Berry Nursery to its current heights of success. Jim Berry, the visionary leader and co-founder of J. Berry Nursery, shares insights into their dynamic sales and marketing strategy. With a passion for our exceptional plant products, Jim is on a mission to cultivate not just growth but flourishing partnerships with our valued customers. At the heart of our strategy is innovation and market disruption. J Berry nursery is known for collaborating with a collective group of growers to serve the needs of big-box stores, ensuring that our plants stand out in a crowded market. But it does not stop there. Jim's meticulous planning and keen market insights are instrumental in shaping the modern landscape with solid science. Real-time data analysis is the backbone of our approach, guiding decisions to optimize sales growth and profitability.

Keywords: branding, licensed growers, brand partners, trademarks, customer relationships

Native seed germination at the Rae Selling Berry Seed Bank

Author: Gabriel Campbell-Martínez, Roxy Olsson, April Hersey, Stephanie Meikle, and Kris Freitag

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 390-398

A study at the Rae Selling Berry Seed Bank in Portland, Oregon, conducted 187 seed-germination trials on 154 species native to the Pacific Northwest. Seeds, stored for 0.1 to 34 years, underwent various treatments, including cold stratification and gibberellic acid soaking. Results showed 51% germination across trials, with notable improvements for specific taxa. Light conditions influenced germination outcomes, and gibberellic acid overcame light or dark requirements for certain species. Long-term storage trials (14 to 38 years) revealed that 52% of taxa maintained viability, indicating orthodoxy of many native plant species for seed bank storage. This research provides valuable insights into the germination and storage potential of Pacific Northwest plant seeds, contributing to biodiversity-conservation efforts.

Keywords:  native seeds, germination trial, seed bank, ex situ conservation

How to reduce complexity for better

Author: Della Fetzer

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 399-403

In this exploration of process complexity in production and research, I underscore the pivotal role of effective processes in achieving our most critical goals. I delve into the common pitfalls of process improvement, attributing failures to the inadvertent introduction of complications through unnecessary features, drawing parallels from the software industry. I advocate for intentional efforts to simplify processes, proposing a systematic approach involving understanding the current state, collaboratively simplifying the future state, and rigorously validating changes to reduce complexity. I emphasize the importance of recognizing and optimizing for innate human abilities, such as adaptation and contribution. Ultimately, I highlight the need for resilience, collaboration, and proactive enthusiasm for positive changes to foster effective process improvement and contribute to a self-sustaining cycle of progress.

Keywords:  process complexity, process improvement, current state, future state

Biochar in propagation substrates: sustainable solution or impractical idea?

Author: Benjamin K. Hoover

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 404-409

Identifying sustainable horticultural substrates is critical, but what does sustainability really mean? Biochar is perceived as sustainable in many settings, but does it deserve this status in plant propagation? I conducted experiments with coconut-shell biochar to assess its suitability in seed propagation and vegetative propagation substrates. Biochar performed well as a substrate amendment in my experiments. However, the costs associated with the biochar make classifying it as sustainable a nuanced discussion.

Keywords:  biochar, substrates, media, sustainability, seed propagation, vegetative propagation, cutting

The climate ready landscape plant trials

Author: Lorence R. Oki

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 410-412

The Climate Ready Landscape Plant (CRLP) trials evaluates ornamentals at three levels of deficit irrigation to yield information about their performance and irrigation recommendations from a network of trial sites in Arizona, California, Oregon, Utah, and Washington. A weather-based irrigation protocol was used to apply deficit-irrigation treatments of 80%, 50%, or 20% of reference evapotranspiration. The frequency and quantity of irrigations varied between treatments while the volume applied was constant for all treatments. Thus, the 80% treatment was irrigated more frequently and received more water overall than the 20% treatment. Plant growth and aesthetic data were collected monthly from spring to fall when deficit treatments were imposed. Each site held at least one field day, inviting master gardeners and horticultural professionals to assess the aesthetics of the plants. This allowed researchers to contextualize the monthly aesthetic ratings with local norms and preferences while providing participants an opportunity to discover new plant material that they may use professionally. Using these data, researchers will develop irrigation recommendations for each of the 41 evaluated taxa, identifying the treatment where the least water was applied without compromising aesthetics. With the results, the project seeks to leverage the wide distribution of sites across the western U.S. to identify taxa that might perform well across wide geographic ranges and inform plant selection in future locations as the climate changes to support nursery growers in selecting and offering resilient landscape plants.

Keywords:  climate, landscape, deficit irrigation

Initial detection of emerald ash borer in Oregon and rapid response

Author: Max Ragozzino, Thomas Valente, and Alex Gorman

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 413-417

Emerald ash borer (EAB), a highly destructive invasive insect, has rapidly spread across North America since its introduction in the mid-1990s, causing extensive damage to ash trees. This paper details the detection and control efforts of EAB in northwest Oregon. The establishment of the Oregon EAB Response Task Force and implementation of intensive survey efforts revealed the extent of EAB infestation in the region. Acknowledging the challenges of eradicating EAB, the paper outlines a slow-ash-mortality (SLAM) strategy to limit the spread of EAB and to give affected parties sufficient time to make management decisions. Chemical control of EAB needs to occur before trees experience more than 20% canopy decline. Emamectin benzoate appears to be the most effective chemical to protect trees from succumbing to the invasive insect. Two additional strategies, including the creation of buffer zones and biological control, appear to worth further exploring as viable options to control EAB spread.

Keywords:  EAB, insect, invasive species, Agrilus planipennis

A peek into the North Dakota State University woody plant improvement program

Author: Todd P. West

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 418-420

North Dakota State University's Woody Plant Improvement Program (WPIP), initiated in 1971, has released 61 woody plant selections into the ornamental nursery trade since 1986. With a focus on the U.S. northern Great Plains, the program aims to evaluate and introduce new woody plants suitable for the region's challenging conditions. The evaluations, conducted at three primary research sites in North Dakota, have assessed over 200 genera and 3,000 species and cultivars of trees and shrubs. The extensive collection at the NDSU Horticulture Research Farm and Dale E. Herman Research Arboretum includes more than 11,000 accessions, making it the largest and most diverse woody ornamental plant collection in the northern Great Plains. The WPIP employs various germplasm collection methods and plant improvement techniques, including landscape observation, mass selection, and traditional and mutagenic breeding. Notable recent selections include cultivars of Japanese elm, dwarf Korean birch, Ohio buckeye, birch, mollis azalea, mugo pine, katsuratree, and mountain pine, with potential future introductions such as "Gumdrop" sugar maple and "Golden" littleleaf linden. The program's efforts contribute significantly to expanding the variety and resilience of woody plants for urban landscapes in challenging climates.

Keywords: plant breeding, cold resistance, NDSU, plant introductions

Effects of cytokinin on shoot and rhizome initiation in leaf cuttings of Eucodonia and Achimenes

Author: Anna Baloh, Robert Geneve, Shari Dutton, and Marta Nosarzewski

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 420-424

The impact the cytokinin, benzyladenine (BA) on rhizome production in leaf cuttings of Eucodonia and Achimenes was determined. In Eucodonia ‘Adele’, untreated petiole cuttings were not statistically different from the untreated leaf lamina cuttings. Lamina leaf cuttings hereby defined as leaf segments without a petiole. Untreated lamina cuttings were found to have the highest adventitious shoot formation. BA had a negative effect in Eucodonia on rhizome formation in petiole leaf cuttings and reduced the number of shoots initiated in leaf cuttings with a cut lamina. Leaf cuttings in Achimenes only initiated rhizomes and roots. Achimenes ‘Desiree’ leaf cuttings produce a higher percentage and greater number of rhizomes compared to Achimenes ‘Tarantella’. The effect of BA on Achimenes leaf cuttings was similar to Eucodonia . There was no statistical difference between the untreated and BA treated leaf cuttings in Achimenes ‘Tarantella’. Achimenes ‘Desiree’ cuttings were observed to have negative effects from the BA treatment. Overall, a pretreatment with BA had no impact or a negative impact on rhizome initiation in Eucodonia and Achimenes .

Keywords: propagation, gesneriads, BA, benzyladenine

Spring Meadow Nursery: Behind the scenes – What it takes to become a Proven Winner ColorChoice® shrub

Author: Megan Mathey

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 425-435

Spring Meadow Nursery was established in 1981 in Grand Haven, Michigan, and has emerged as a leader in the horticultural industry. Through collaboration with a global network of breeders as well as an internal breeding and trialing program, Spring Meadow has developed a wide array of woody ornamental plants that meet high standards for consumer success, disease resistance, and environmental friendliness. The nursery's commitment to innovation, quality, and sustainability has led to over 249 plant awards and a significant impact on the industry, underlining its role as a key player ihttps://ipps.org/admin/protected/proceedings.php?action=Procarticle&start=50&max_show=50&dosearch=1&search=n advancing horticultural practices and ornamental plant varieties. A motto from the owner runs deep and if you know him and anything about the nursery you will know, “It’s a good start”.

Keywords:  new product development, plant breeding, trialing program, tissue culture lab, mutation breeding, ploidy manipulation, seed collection, data collection

Evaluating remontancy and rebloom in Hydrangea macrophylla

Author: David Roberts

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 436-442

In Hydrangea macrophylla , remontancy is a valuable trait that is relatively easy to incorporate into seedling lines, but determining which lines possess the strongest rebloom can be more challenging. Simply falling into the classification of “remontant” does not necessarily mean a hydrangea will be a strong rebloomer. Plant breeders at Bailey InnovationsTM gauge hydrangea rebloom potential through seasonal cutback evaluations and annual rebloom trials. This paper details the procedures and protocols utilized by Bailey InnovationsTM, to evaluate selections of -- Hydrangea macrophylla which have superior reblooming characteristics.

Keywords:  plant breeding, plant trialing, genetics

Solving production problems at Robinson Nurseries: Innovation is part of our culture

Author: Chris Robinson and Adam McClanahan

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 443-449

Circling and girdling roots is a major problem for container nursery producers. Containers that permit air pruning can eliminate root circling and lead to better tree establishment in the landscape. The mount of root circling varies by genera and various container and air pruning systems were evaluated for popular tree species.

Keywords:  container production, roots, air pruning, container design

The effects of IBA treatment and surfactant on root development during vegetative propagation of Hibiscus grandiflorus

Author: Jack Schaefer

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 450-452

Preliminary rooting trails were conducted in Swamp rose mallow (Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.). Cuttings were treated with K-IBA with or without a surfactant. There is no significant impact of the rooting hormone or surfactant on rooting success or plant survival.

Keywords:  cuttings, swamp rose mallow

The Horticulture Club’s native plant program at the University of Kentucky

Author: Katie Taliaferro, Anna Baloh, Shari Dutton, Richard Durham and Robert Geneve

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 453- 459

For over 40 years, the Horticulture Club at the University of Kentucky has provided students with outside-the-classroom educational and social experiences. Over the years, the members’ interests have changed along with horticultural trends. Primary interest in landscape management has shifted to a current emphasis in production and use of native species, especially as pollinator and wildlife plants. A major goal of the club is to provide opportunities to expand their members’ horticultural knowledge beyond the classroom including national and international study tour experiences. The current Vice President and former Native Plant Nursery Intern for the Horticulture Club, Katie Taliaferro, shares her unique insight into the inner workings of one of the most successful clubs in the Martin-Gatton College of Agriculture, Food, and Environment.

Keywords:  education, internship, leadership

Back to basics, setting standards for success with seed

Author: Jaime Manlove

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 460- 467

Plug and plant production of native plants is described for North Creek Nursery including seed collection, dormancy treatments, germination and seedling growth. Standard plugs are produced and finished in a variety of sizes including transplant ready Landscape plugs.

Keywords:  germination, dormancy, native plants, nursery, collection

Perspectives, trends and sustainability initiatives in the soilless growing media industry

Author: Brian E. Jackson

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 468 - 477

Growing media is fundamental to greenhouse and nursery production. Sustainability issues as well as competition for substrate from a growing controlled environment food production sector is making it important to reevaluate existing media resources and examine viable alternatives.

Keywords:  Substrate, peat, wood fiber, nursery, greenhouse

New plant forum 2023 – Eastern Region IPPS

Author: Elizabeth (Dunham) Erickson

PP: Vol. 73, Pages 478-481

New plants for 2023 are highlighted and described. This year six IPPS-ER breeders presented herbaceous and woody perennial plants.

Keywords:  breeding, plant introduction, genetics